The labour law in Slovakia is regulated mainly by the Labour Code Act No. 311/2001 Coll. The Labour Code governs the terms and conditions of employment such as working hours, holidays and rest periods, wages, overtime, employment relationships, and labour protection. The other acts that govern employment relationships are the Social Insurance Act and Employment Services Act.
Hours & Pay Regulations
The standard hours of work of an employee are not more than 8 hours a day or 40 hours per week.
An employee who works alternately on both shifts of a two-shift operation, and on all shifts of a three-shift operation or continuous operation should have a maximum working time of 38 and ¾ and 37 and ½ hours per week respectively.
An employee’s average weekly working time including overtime may not exceed 48 hours. Labor Code, 2001, § 85.
Beginning and End of Working Time
The beginning and end of working time and the timetable of work shifts should be provided by the employer after agreement with employee representatives and should be made accessible to employees in writing. An employer must also announce the distribution of working time to an employee at least one week in advance, and with a validity of at least one week. Labor Code, 2001, § 90.
When an employee works beyond the set weekly working time and outside of the schedule of working shifts, then they are said to be on work stand by. The time which is the active part of work standby is treated as overtime work. The employer may order a maximum of 8 hours of work standby per week and 100 hours in the calendar year. Labor Code, 2001, § 96a.
Overtime work for an employee should not exceed on average 8 hours per week in a period of 4 consecutive months and at the most 12 consecutive months. An employee’s average weekly working time including overtime should not exceed 48 hours.
An employee can perform overtime work up to the maximum extent of 150 hours in a calendar year and can voluntarily work for a maximum of 400 hours of overtime.
Employees are entitled to regular wages and a wage surcharge of 25 percent of average earnings for overtime work and a 35 percent surcharge in case of hazardous activities.
An employer may, in agreement with employees, provide time off in lieu, no later than 12 months calculated from the time when the overtime work was performed, in which case the employee will not be entitled to wage surcharge for the overtime work. Labor Code, 2001, § 97 and 121.
Night work is a work shift that is performed within the time period between 22:00 hours and 06:00 hours. An employee is said to work in the night shift if the work is performed for consecutive 3 hours at night or 500 hours at night in a calendar year.
Surcharge for work at Night
Effective January 1, 2021, for work at night, an employee who works on the basis of a permanent employment relationship, a wage supplement will be provided in the following amount:
- at least € 1.43 for each hour of night work – applies to employees performing non-hazardous work,
- at least € 1.79 for each hour of night work – applies to an employee performing risky work.
The method for calculation of the fixed amount was on the basis of the current formula (valid for calculating the amount of the bonus in 2020) as per which the employee is entitled to a wage benefit of at least 40% of the minimum wage per hour in euros (non-risk occupation), resp. at least 50% (high-risk occupation), of the minimum wage per hour in euros, the basis for the calculation being the hourly minimum wage valid for 2021, ie € 3.58 (40% of € 3.58 = € 1.43).
The wage benefit can be lowered based on an agreement between employer and employee if the nature of the work or operating conditions require that the majority of work be performed as night work, at least € 1.25 for each hour of night work (in 2020, the amount of the supplement was at least 35% of the minimum wage in euros per hour). However, the above only applies to employees performing non-hazardous work. Labor Code, 2001, § 98.
An employer should provide an employee whose work shift is longer than six hours with a break for rest and eating for a duration of 30 minutes. Breaks should not be provided at the beginning and end of shifts and shall not be calculated in working time. Labor Code, 2001, § 91.
Breast Feeding Breaks
An employer shall provide a mother who breast-feeds her child, special breaks for breast-feeding for 2.5 hours per child, in addition to the regular break time. A woman employee who works for a shorter working shift will be entitled to 1.5 hours of breastfeed break until the child reaches 6 months of age. Labor Code, 2001, § 170.
An employer must ensure that an employee should have a minimum rest duration of 12 consecutive hours within 24 hours. Labor Code, 2001, § 92.
An employer should provide an employee 2 consecutive days of continuous rest once per week, which must fall on Saturday and Sunday or on Sunday and Monday.
Surcharge for work on Saturday
Wage benefits for work on Saturdays are regulated by Section 122a of the Labor Code. Effective January 1, 2021, an employee is entitled to a wage benefit of at least € 1.79 per hour for work on Saturday.
This fixed amount was calculated on the basis of the currently applicable formula (valid for determining the amount of the bonus in 2020), ie 50% of the minimum wage in euros per hour, and used the amount of the minimum hourly wage valid for 2021, ie € 3.58 (50% from € 3.58 = € 1.79).
However, it is possible for an employer who, due to the nature of the work or operating conditions, is required to work regularly on Saturday, agree on a lower amount of wage benefit, at least € 1.61 per hour (in 2020 the amount of the allowance was at least 45% of the minimum wage in euros per hour).
Surcharge for Work on Sunday
Effective January 1, 2021, the amount of the wage benefit, ie the surcharge for work on Sunday, is regulated by § 122b paragraph 1 of the Labor Code, As per the amendment the employee is entitled to a wage benefit for work on Sunday in the amount of at least € 3.58 per hour.
The fixed amount of the allowance for work on Sunday is calculated based on the currently applicable formula (valid for determining the amount of allowance in 2020), ie 100%. The minimum wage in euros per hour and used the amount of the minimum hourly wage valid for 2021, ie € 3.58 (100% of € 3.58 = € 3.58).
The benefit can be at a lower rate of wage i.e. the allowance for work on Sunday, to at least 3.22 € per hour (in 2020 the amount of the allowance was at least 90% of the minimum wage in euros per hour), but only if the nature of the work or the conditions of operation of the employer so require that the work be carried out regularly on Sundays. Labor Code, 63/2018 Coll.
Employees are entitled to the following 15 public holidays with pay:
- Jan. 1: Day of the Establishment of the Slovak Republic
- Jan. 6: Epiphany
- Good Friday
- Easter Monday
- May 1: Labor Day
- May 8: Victory Over Fascism Da
- July 5: St. Cyril and Methodius Day
- Aug. 29: Slovak National Uprising Anniversary
- Sept. 1: Day of the Constitution of the Slovak Republic
- Sept. 15: Day of Our Lady of Sorrows
- Nov. 1: All Saints’ Day
- Nov. 17: Struggle for Freedom and Democracy Day
- Dec. 24: Christmas Eve
- Dec. 25: Christmas Day
- Dec. 26: St. Stephen’s Day
An employee who did not work for a reason that a public holiday fell on a normal working day for him/her shall be entitled to wage compensation in the amount of his/her average earnings if wages were lost because of the public holiday.
If an employee works on a public holiday, they are entitled to an hourly wage surcharge of 100 percent of average earnings or time off in lieu calculated on the basis of each hour worked on the public holiday. Such time off in lieu must be provided by the employer within 3 months from the day when such work was performed. Labor Code, 2001, § 122.
An employee who has been in the continuous employment of an employer and has worked for the full calendar year is entitled to 4 weeks of paid leave, and employees who are aged 33 years or above will be entitled to 5 weeks of paid leave.
Employees who do not work for the full calendar year but have worked for at least 60 days in continuous employment are entitled to 1/12th of total annual leave entitlement for each month worked.
Employees who have not been in continuous employment for at least 60 days, are entitled to leave dependent on the number of days worked in the amount of 1/12 of annual leave for every 21 days worked in the respective calendar year.
Employees in the teaching and training profession are entitled to 8 weeks of paid leave. Employees who perform particularly difficult or health-endangering work will be entitled to a supplementary paid holiday of 1 week. But, if the work is performed under such conditions for only part of the calendar year, then employees will be entitled to 1/12 of supplementary paid holiday for every 21 days so worked.
Effective Jan 1, 2020, parents aged 33 years old or less who have permanent childcare responsibilities are entitled to one additional week of paid vacation leave under changes to the Slovakian labor code. Labor Code, 2001, § 100 -117.
Effective January 1, 2021, the minimum monthly wage in 2021 from the current € 580 to € 623. The amount of the hourly minimum wage would increase to € 3.580 from the current € 3.333 per worked hour.
The above information on minimum wages might not be up to date & subject to change. Kindly access the Eurostat website for the current rates.
The employer is required to pay the employee during the first 10 days of sick leave. Thereafter, the employee is entitled to sick pay from the Social Insurance Agency. Short-term pay is 25 percent of the employee’s daily rate of pay for the first three days of sick leave. From the fourth to the 10th day of sick leave, the employer pays the employee 55 percent of his or her daily pay.
Employees are entitled to seven days per year of compensated leave for treatment or assessment in a medical facility. Social Insurance Act, 461/2003, § 34, 37, 144.
A woman employee is entitled to maternity leave of 34 weeks duration. A lone woman is entitled to leave for 37 weeks and a woman who gave birth to two or more children would be entitled to 43 weeks of maternity leave.
The maternity leave starts between sixth and the eighth week before the expected delivery date. The leave cannot be less than 14 weeks and will not end before the end of the sixth week from the birth of the child. In case, the child born is dead, a woman employee is entitled to 14 weeks of maternity leave. Labor Code, 2001, § 166 – 169.
A father after agreement with the mother of a newborn child can take leave for a period of 28 weeks or until the child reaches 3 years of age. This leave can be taken only after 6 weeks from the date of birth of the child and only in cases where the mother has not been receiving the maternity or parental allowance. Social Insurance Act, 461/2003, § 49.
Employees are entitled to receive parental leave until the child is 3 years old. In cases where the child has serious health conditions that require special care, the employer shall provide upon the request of the employee parental leave until the child turns 6 years old.
In the case where the child dies during the maternity or parental leave, the employees are entitled to further 2 weeks of leave from the day of the death of the child or maximum until the child would have reached one year of age. Labor Code, 2001, § 166.
Employees who adopt or foster a child are entitled to leave up to 28 weeks. A lone man and woman are entitled to leave up to 31 weeks and a woman and a man having taken the care of two or more children is entitled to leave for 37 weeks.
Further parental leave can be provided until the child is 3 years old or in cases where the child at the time of adoption was already 3 years old until the child reaches 6 years of age. Labour Code, 2001, § 169.
Employees are entitled to one day’s paid leave to be married and one days’ time off from work without wage compensation shall be granted for the employee to attend the wedding of their child or parent. Labor Code, 2001, § 141.
Employees are entitled to two days’ paid leave following the death of a spouse or a child and another day to attend the funeral. Employees are entitled to one day’s paid leave to attend the funeral of a close relative (e.g., parent, sibling, parent or sibling of spouse or spouse of a sibling) and another day if the employee arranges the funeral. Labor Code, 2001, § 141.
Last updated on: December 29th, 2020