Last updated on: December 29th, 2021
The Egyptian Labour Law No. 12 for the year 2003 aims at regulating the relationship between employers and employees in the private sector in Egypt while Law No. 81 for the year 2016 regulates the working relationship of the civil servants of the State. The other Acts governing employment relationships are Social Security Law No. 79/1975, and the Civil Law.
Hours & Pay Regulations
The period of the annual leave shall be 21 days with full pay for those spending one complete year in the service. The leave shall be increased to 30 days once the employee spends 10 years in service with one or more employers and for employees over the age of 50. The holidays, the official occasions days, and the weekly days off shall not be counted as part of the leave days.
If the employee’s service is less than 1 year, the employee shall be entitled to a leave-in proportion to the period he has spent in work, providing he has spent 6 months in the service of the employer.
The period of annual leave will be increased by 7 days for employees engaged in hard, dangerous work or in remote areas.
The employer will determine the dates of the annual leave according to work exigencies and conditions. Employers cannot interrupt the leave except for strong reasons. In all cases, the employee shall obtain an annual leave of 15 days per year which should constitute at least 6 consecutive days. The employer shall settle the balance of leaves or the wage against that balance at most every 3 years.
The employee shall have the right to determine the date of his annual leave if he is sitting for the exam in any of the educational stages, providing he shall notify the employer at least 15 days in advance.
Termination of employment
If the employment of the employee terminates before he/she could avail the annual leave, in such cases the employer shall provide the employee with wages according to the balance of annual leaves left with the employee. Art 47-48 of Labor Law.
Effective January 1, 2022, the minimum wage in Egypt is EGP 2400 per month.
If an employee is sick, he/she is entitled to sick leave based on the report from the concerned medical authority.
According to Social Insurance Law, during sick leave, an employee is entitled to his/her salary. An employee with a proven record of sickness is entitled to paid sick leave at the rate of 75% of his/her salary upon which social insurance payments are calculated; for a period of 90 days, to be increased to 85% for the following 90 days.
Sick leaves are payable up to 180 days. The right is reserved for the employee to benefit from his/her accumulated annual leaves as well as convert these into sick leaves if such a balance exists. Art 54 of Labor Law.
Female employees who have spent 10 months or more in the service of the employer are entitled to 3 months of paid maternity leave for each up to three children, provided they have been contributing to the social insurance for the past 10 months.
Maternity benefits are paid at 75% of the last wage. Moreover, women employed in establishments with more than 50 employees are entitled to up to two years of unpaid childbearing leave per child.
Employees shall be required to submit a medical certificate indicating the date on which the birth took place. Employees may not be employed during the 45 days following the date of delivery.
Female employees are also entitled to two half-hour nursing breaks per day, or alternatively one combined an hour-long break, for 24 months after the date of birth of each child in addition to the designated rest periods. The break shall be counted as working hours.
For establishments employing 100 employees or more, an employer is obliged to provide for an in-house nursery, or alternatively, to take charge of placing employee’s children (until the age of schooling is reached) inadequate nurseries. Art 91-92 of Labor Law.
A female employee in an establishment that employs fifty or more employees shall have the right to obtain leave without pay for a period not exceeding 2 years in order to take care of her child and she is not entitled to this leave more than twice for the duration of its service with the employer. Art 94 of Labor Law.
An employee may take an absence from work for a casual reason for a period of not exceeding 6 days during the year, with a maximum limit of 2 days each time. The casual leave will be deducted from the employee’s annual leave. Art 51 of Labor Law.
Employees shall be entitled to paid study leave subject to collective bargaining agreements. Duration is not defined. Art 55 of Labor Law.
An employee who has completed 5 continuous years of service with the employer shall have the right to leave for 1 month with full pay for performing religious pilgrimage duty or visiting Jerusalem. This leave shall be granted only once throughout his service period. Art 53 of Labor Law.