The Labour Law in Russia is regulated mainly by the Labor Code of 2001. The Code governs the terms and conditions of employment such as working hours, holidays and rest periods, wages, overtime, annual leave, special leaves & other employment relationships.
Hours & Pay Regulations
A standard workweek generally may not exceed 40 hours (exclusive of overtime).
Working time routine should include the duration of the working week (five-day with two days off, six-day with one day off, work week with days off according to the rolling schedule, part-time work week), work with irregular work hours for certain categories of employees, duration of daily work ( shifts), including part-time work (shifts), start and end times, break times, the number of shifts per day, alternation of working and non-working days, which are established by the internal labor regulations in accordance with labor legislation and other regulatory legal acts containing labor law norms, a collective agreement, agreements, and for employees whose working hours differ from the general rules, established by this employer – by an employment contract.
In jobs where it is necessary due to the special nature of work, as well as in the production of work, the working day can be divided into parts so that the total working time does not exceed the established duration of daily work. The normal number of working hours for the accounting period is determined based on the weekly working hours established for this category of employees.
In a flexible working hours regime, the beginning, end, or total length of the working day (shift) is determined by the agreement of the parties. The employer ensures that the employee fulfills the total number of working hours during the respective accounting periods (working day, week, month, and others).
Shift work is work in two, three, or four shifts. It is introduced in cases where the duration of the production process exceeds the permissible duration of daily work, as well as in order to more efficiently use the equipment, increase the volume of products or services provided.
When working in shifts each group of employees is to do work within the established working hours in accordance with the shift operation schedule. Shift schedules are communicated to employees no later than one month before they are put into effect. Work for two shifts in a row is prohibited.
The employee may, by agreement of the parties to the employment contract, be assigned part-time working hours (part-time (shift) and (or) part-time workweek, including the division of the working day into parts). Part-time work can be established both without a time limit and for any period agreed by the parties to the employment contract.
Part-time work is a working time determined by an agreement between the employee and the employer, the duration of which is less than the normal or reduced working time established by the employer.
When working on a part-time basis, the employee is paid in proportion to the time worked by the employee or depending on the amount of work performed by the employee. An irregular working day may be established by an agreement or contract for an employee working on a part-time basis, but with a full working day (shift).
Shorter Working Time
For employees employed in work with harmful and (or) hazardous working conditions, where a shorter working time is established, the maximum allowable daily work (shift) duration cannot exceed:
- at 36-hour working week – 8 hours;
- with a 30-hour working week or less – 6 hours.
Labor Code, 2001, No. 197-FZ (as amended), arts. 91-94.
Summarized recording of working hours
For employees working in harmful and hazardous conditions, where the daily or weekly working hours cannot be observed due to the condition of production, the employer may be allowed to introduce a summarized accounting of working hours so that the working time for the accounting period (month, quarter and other periods) does not exceed the normal number of working hours.
The accounting period cannot exceed 1 year, and for accounting of the working time of employees employed in work with harmful and (or) dangerous working conditions – 3 months. Labor Code, 2001, No. 197-FZ (as amended), arts. 91-95, 104 – 105.
The work record book is the main document on the labor activity and work experience of the employee. The employer maintains workbooks for each employee who has worked for the employer for more than five days.
The employer is obliged to keep records of the time actually worked and overtime work performed by each employee. Labor Code, 2001, No. 197-FZ (as amended), arts. 91, 99.
Overtime cannot exceed 4 hours in 2 consecutive days or 120 hours in a year for each employee.
Pay – Overtime pay is 1.5 times the regular rate of pay for the first two hours beyond normal working hours and 2 times the regular rate of pay for all working hours beyond that. At the request of the employee, time off in lieu can be given instead of increased pay, but not less than the time worked overtime.
Collective bargaining agreements can also address the specific compensation granted during overtime work. Employees must give written consent to work overtime. Labor Code, 2001, No. 197-FZ (as amended), arts. 99 (Russian), 152.
Night work is defined as that performed between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m.
The duration of the work shift at night is reduced by 1 hour. The duration of work shift at night is not reduced for employees who have a reduced duration of working hours, as well as for employees hired specifically for work at night unless otherwise provided by the collective agreement.
Pay – Each hour of work at night is paid at an increased rate compared to work under normal conditions, but not less than the amount established by labor legislation and other regulatory legal acts containing labor law norms.
The duration of work at night is equal to the duration of work in the daytime in cases where it is necessary due to working conditions, as well as in shift work with a 6-day working week with one day off. The list of these works can be determined by a collective agreement, local normative act. Labor Code, 2001, No. 197-FZ (as amended), arts. 96 (Russian).
Employees are entitled during each workday to a meal/rest break of not less than 30 minutes and not more than 2 hours which is not included in working hours. The break is unpaid. Employers may not be required to provide a meal break during any work shift that lasts fewer than 4 hours in accordance with the employment contract.
The time for granting a break and its specific duration is established by the internal labor regulations or by agreement between the employee and the employer.
In jobs where, under the terms of production (work), it is not possible to provide a break for rest and meals, the employer must provide the employee with the opportunity to rest and eat during working hours.
Employees who work in the open air or enclosed unheated rooms in the cold season, as well as loaders engaged in loading and unloading operations, and other employees, if necessary, are provided with special breaks for heating and rest, which are included in working hours. Labor Code, 2001, No. 197-FZ (as amended), arts.108, 109 (Russian).
The workweek must include a rest period of 42 continuous hours, whether the workweek is five or six days. The period of a weekly rest shall be calculated from the moment of the end of work on the eve of the day off and until the start of work on the day after the day off.
Day Off – All employees are given days off (weekly continuous rest). With a five-day workweek, employees are given two days off per week, with a six-day workweek, one day off. A common day off is Sunday. Both days off are usually provided in a row.
The second day off for a five-day workweek is established by a collective agreement or internal labor regulations. For employers whose suspension of work on weekends is not possible due to production, technical and organizational conditions, days off are provided on different days of the week.
If a day off and a non-working holiday coincide, the day off is transferred to the next working day after the holiday for with the exception of weekends that coincide with the Holidays for New Year and Nativity of Christ.
Work on a weekend is paid at least double the regular rate of pay. At the request of the employee who worked on a weekend may be given another day off in lieu of payment.
An increased payment determined by a collective agreement is made to all employees for hours actually worked on a weekend or a non-working holiday. If a part of the working day (shift) falls on a weekend or a non-working holiday, the hours actually worked on a weekend or a non-working holiday (from 0 hours to 24 hours) are paid in an increased amount.
Time off in Lieu – At the request of the employee who worked on a weekend, he may be given another day of rest.
Work performed in excess of working hours on weekends and non-working holidays and paid in an increased amount or compensated by the provision of another day of rest shall not be taken into account when determining the duration of overtime work payable in an increased amount. Labor Code, 2001, No. 197-FZ (as amended), arts. 110, 111, 112 (Russian).
Employees are entitled to the following 14 paid public holidays:( nonworking holidays)
- January 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 – New Year holidays;
- Jan. 7: Nativity of Christ
- Feb. 23: Defenders of the Fatherland Day
- March 8: International Women’s Day
- May 1: Spring and Labor Day
- May 9: Victory Day
- June 12: Russia Day
- Nov. 4: National Unity Day
Holidays which falls on Weekend
Holidays that fall on weekends are observed on the next business day.
If the weekend and non-working holidays coincide, the day off is postponed to the next day after the holiday working day with the exception of Holidays for New Year and Nativity of Christ. The Government authorities shall postpone two days off from days off that coincide with non-working holidays i.e. New Year Holidays and the Nativity of Christ to other days in the following calendar year.
The duration of a working day or shift in the 5-day workweek immediately preceding a non-working holiday is reduced by one hour. On the eve of days off, the duration of work during a six-day working week may not exceed five hours.
In continuously operating organizations and in certain types of work, where it is impossible to reduce the duration of work (shift) on the pre-holiday day, the processing is compensated by providing the employee with additional rest time or, with the consent of the employee, payment according to the norms established for overtime work.
Pay for Work on Holiday
Employees cannot generally be required to work on holidays, although they can agree to work based on agreement. For companies with continuous operations (e.g., factories, stores), work on holidays may be authorized.
Employees who work on holidays get double pay or an additional day off. Collective agreements or individual employment contracts may specify higher payment rates.
Time off in Lieu – At the request of the employee who worked on a non-working holiday, he may be given another day of rest.
If a part of the working day (shift) falls on a non-working holiday, the hours paid are actually paid for hours actually worked on the weekend or non-working holiday (from 0 hours to 24 hours). Labor Code, 2001, No. 197-FZ (as amended), arts. 112, 153 (Russian).
An employee is entitled to paid annual leave for a duration of 28 calendar days. The main paid leave of 28 calendar days is granted to both full-time and part-time employees. The right for the use of the leave for the first year of work shall arise for the employee upon the expiry of six months of uninterrupted work with the given employer.
If there is an agreement between the parties, the employee may take paid leave before the expiry of the six months. The leave for the second and subsequent years of work may be provided at any time of the working year according to the order for taking annual paid leave adopted by the given employer.
Unused vacation may be carried over to the following year in exceptional circumstances.
Exceptional cases: Annual additional paid holidays are granted to employees employed in work with harmful and (or) hazardous working conditions, employees with a special nature of work, employees with irregular working hours, employees working in the Far North, and equivalent areas. The minimum duration of annual additional paid leave to employees is 7 calendar days.
Additional annual leave for employees with irregular working hours – Employees with irregular working hours are granted annual additional paid leave, the duration of which is determined by the collective agreement or internal labor regulations and which cannot be less than three calendar days.
Calculation of Duration of Annual Leave
The duration of the annual basic and additional paid leave of employees is calculated in calendar days. Non-working holidays falling during the period of the annual main or annual additional paid leave are not included in the number of calendar days of leave. When calculating the total duration of the annual paid leave, additional paid leaves are added to the annual basic paid leave.
Postponement of Annual Leave
If the employee was not paid in a timely manner for the period of the paid annual leave or the employee was informed of the start time of this vacation later than two weeks before its start, then the employer, upon the employee’s written application, is obliged to postpone the annual paid vacation for another period agreed with the employee.
In exceptional cases, when the granting leave to an employee in the current working year may adversely affect the normal course of work, transfer of leave to the next working year is allowed with the consent of the employee. In this case, leave must be used no later than 12 months after the end of the working year for which it is granted.
Employees with three or more children under the age of eighteen are granted annual paid leave at their request at a time convenient for them until the youngest of the children reaches the age of fourteen.
Division of annual paid leave into parts
The annual paid leave may be divided into parts by agreement between the employee and the employer. And, at least one of the parts of this leave must be at least 14 calendar days.
The recall of an employee from vacation is allowed only with the employee’s consent. The unused part of the annual leave must be provided at the choice of the employee at a time convenient for the employee during the current working year or added to the vacation for the next working year.
Replacement of annual paid leave with monetary compensation
The part of the annual paid leave exceeding 28 calendar days, upon written application of the employee, can be replaced with monetary compensation. When summing up annual paid leave or transferring the annual paid leave to the next working year, monetary compensation may replace a part of each annual paid leave exceeding 28 calendar days.
Granting annual paid leave to persons raising children with disabilities
One of the parents (guardian, trustee, foster parent) raising a disabled child under the age of 18 is granted annual paid leave at his request at a convenient time for the employee.
Annual Leave Pay
The employee going on vacation is paid the average earnings. To calculate the average wage, all the types of payments provided by the system of remuneration applied by the respective employer, regardless of the sources of these payments, are taken into account.
The average wage of an employee is calculated based on the wage actually accrued by the employee and the time actually worked during the 12 calendar months preceding the period.
Annual Leave Upon Termination
The employee is paid monetary compensation for all unused vacations upon termination. At the written request of the employee, unused vacations may be granted to the employee with subsequent termination (except in cases of dismissal for guilty actions). In this case, the last day of vacation is considered the day of termination. Labor Code, 2001, No. 197-FZ (as amended), arts. 115-122, 139, 262.1, 262.2.
Effective January 1, 2021, the national minimum wage in Russia is 12,792 Russian rubles.
Female employees are entitled to 70 days of paid pre-natal leave, extended to 84 days if more than one child is expected, and 70 days of postnatal leave, extended to 86 days in cases of complications in childbirth or 110 days in the event of the birth of two or more children.
Maternity leave shall be calculated in total & granted to a female employee regardless of the number of days she actually used before giving birth.
Pay – Allowances during pregnancy and maternity leave are paid by the Social Insurance Fund. Labor Code, 2001, No. 197-FZ (as amended), arts. 255 (Russian).
Working women with children under the age of one and a half years, in addition to a break for rest and meals, are provided with additional breaks for feeding the child (children) at least every 3 hours, each lasting at least 30 minutes. If a working woman has two or more children under the age of one and a half years, the duration of the break for feeding is set at least 1 hour.
At the request of the woman, the breaks for feeding the child (children) are added to the break for rest and meals or are summed up both at the beginning and at the end of the working day (work shift) with a corresponding reduction.
Pay – Breaks for feeding the child (s) are included in working hours and are payable in the number of average earnings. Labor Code, 2001, No. 197-FZ (as amended), arts. 258 (Russian).
Employees who adopt children shall be granted leave for a period beginning from the date of adoption and up to 70 calendar days from the birth of the adopted child (in the case of adoption of two or more children, 110 calendar days from their birth). If an employee who has adopted a child or children wishes shall be granted parental leave until the child or children reaches 3 years of age.
In the event of the adoption of a child or children by both spouses, the indicated leave shall be granted to one of the spouses at their discretion. Women who adopt a child shall have the option, instead of taking the leave indicated in the first part, of taking maternity leave time for a period beginning from the date of adoption and up to 70 calendar days, and if adopting 2 or more children at the same time, 110 calendar days from their date of birth.
Pay – Allowances during adoption leave are paid by the Social Insurance Fund. Labor Code, 2001, No. 197-FZ (as amended), art. 257 (Russian).
Female employees at their request are entitled to leave to care for a child under 3 years of age. Parental leave may be used in full or in parts by the child’s father, grandmother, grandfather, other relatives, or guardian actually caring for the child.
At the request of a woman or any other person referred above, while on parental leave, they can work part-time or at home while retaining the right to receive benefits from state social insurance. Employees who have three or more children under the age of 12 are entitled to take parental leave at a time that is convenient for them. New fathers qualify for parental leave.
Pay – Allowances during parental leave are paid by the Social Insurance Fund. Labor Code, 2001, No. 197-FZ (as amended), art. 256 (Russian).
Employees can take sick leave in the event of illness or injury. Sick leave can also be granted to an employee taking care of a sick child or sick relative.
Medical care is free to employees through the social security system and is partially funded by employers. Employees unable to work due to non-work-related illness or other injury are entitled to sick leave compensation until they can return to work. The employer pays a temporary disability allowance for the first three days and the Social Insurance Fund pays for the remainder of the time.
The employer can offset its expenses against its Social Insurance Fund liability. The amount of the sick leave benefit depends on how long an employee has been covered under the social security system:
- Less than six months: minimum wage;
- More than six months and up to five years: 60% of average earnings;
- More than five years and up to eight years: 80% of average earnings; and
- More than eight years: 100% of average earnings.
These amounts are paid for the first 10 days of leave. Thereafter, payments are reduced by 50 percent. Law on Compulsory Social Insurance for Temporary Disability, arts. 7 (Russian).
The employer is obliged, on the basis of a written application from the employee, to provide leave without pay:
- participants of the Great Patriotic War – up to 35 calendar days a year;
- working old-age pensioners (by age) – up to 14 calendar days a year;
- parents and wives (husbands) of military personnel, employees of the internal affairs bodies, the federal fire service, customs authorities, employees of institutions and bodies of the penal system who died or died as a result of injury, contusion, or injury received in the performance of military service (service) duties, or due to a disease associated with military service (service), up to 14 calendar days a year;
- working disabled people – up to 60 calendar days a year;
- employees in cases of childbirth, marriage registration, death of close relatives – up to 5 calendar days;
- in other cases provided for by this Code, other federal laws, or a collective agreement.
Labor Code, 2001, No. 197-FZ (as amended), art. 128 (Russian).
Allowance for temporary incapacity for work, if it is necessary to take care of a sick family member, is paid to the insured person:
- in the case of caring for a sick child under the age of 7 years – for the entire period of treatment of the child on an outpatient basis or joint stay with the child in a medical organization when providing him with medical care in inpatient conditions, but not more than 60 calendar days in a calendar year in all cases of caring for this child, and in case of illness of a child included in the list of diseases determined by the federal executive body in charge of developing and implementing state policy and legal regulation in the health sector, no more than 90 calendar days in a calendar year for all cases of caring for this child in connection with the specified disease;
- in the case of caring for a sick child aged 7 to 15 years – for a period of up to 15 calendar days for each case of treatment of a child on an outpatient basis or joint stay with a child in a medical organization when providing him with medical care in a stationary setting, but no more than 45 calendar days.
- in the case of caring for a sick disabled child under the age of 18 – for the entire period of treatment of the child on an outpatient basis or joint stay with the child in a medical organization but not more than 120 calendar days in the calendar year.
- in the case of caring for a sick child under the age of 18 who is HIV-infected, – for the entire period of joint stay with the child in a medical organization when providing him with medical care in inpatient conditions;
- In the case of caring for a sick child under the age of 18 with his illness associated with a post-vaccination complication, with malignant neoplasms, including malignant neoplasms of lymphoid, hematopoietic, and related tissues – for the entire period of treatment of the child on an outpatient basis or joint stay with a child in a medical organization.
- in other cases of caring for a sick family member during treatment on an outpatient basis – no more than 7 calendar days for each case of the disease, but no more than 30 calendar days in a calendar year for all cases of caring for this family member.
Pay for temporary incapacity for work, if it is necessary to take care of a sick child, is paid:
- when treating a child on an outpatient basis – for the first 10 calendar days in the amount determined depending on the length of the insurance period of the insured person, for the next days in the amount of 50 percent of the average earnings;
- when treating a child in inpatient conditions – in the amount determined depending on the length of the insurance period of the insured person.
- Allowance for temporary incapacity for work, if it is necessary to care for a sick family member during his treatment on an outpatient basis, with the exception of cases of caring for a sick child, is paid in an amount determined depending on the length of the insured person’s insurance.
Law on Compulsory Social Insurance for Temporary Disability, arts. 6 (Russian).
Unpaid Child Care Leave
An employee with 2 or more children under the age of 14, an employee with a disabled child under the age of 18, a single mother raising a child under the age of 14, a father raising a child under the age of 14 without a mother, shall be entitled to additional annual leaves without pay at a convenient time for them, lasting up to 14 calendar days through a collective agreement. The said leave shall upon the written application of the employee, be added to the annual paid leave or used separately in full or in parts. The transfer of this leave to the next working year is not allowed. Labor Code, 2001, No. 197-FZ (as amended), art. 263 (Russian).
- passing the intermediate certification in the first and second courses, respectively – for 40 calendar days, for each of the subsequent courses, respectively – for 50 calendar days (when mastering educational programs of higher education in a shorter period of time in the second year – 50 calendar days);
- passing the intermediate certification in the first and second courses of secondary vocational education- 30 calendar days, in each of the subsequent courses – 40 calendar days;
- passing the state final certification – up to 4 months in accordance with the curriculum of the educational program of higher education mastered by the employee; up to 2 months in accordance with the curriculum of the educational program of secondary vocational education being mastered by the employee.
The employer is obliged to provide unpaid leave:
- employees admitted to entrance examinations – 15 calendar days; 10 calendar days for secondary vocational education.
- 10 calendar days in the academic year, for passing the state final certification in secondary vocational education – up to 2 months.
- employees – students of preparatory departments of educational institutions of higher education for passing the final certification – 15 calendar days;
- employees studying in state-accredited bachelor’s programs, special programs or master’s programs in full-time education, combining education with work, to undergo intermediate certification – 15 calendar days in the academic year,
- to prepare and defend the final qualifying work and the final state exams – 1 month, for the final state exams – 1 month.
Labor Code, 2001, No. 197-FZ (as amended), art. 173-177.
Last updated on: October 11th, 2021